Jude 1:14

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And to these also Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying, Behold, the Lord came with ten thousands of his holy ones, (ASV)


Here, Jude endorses (and quotes from) the First Book of Enoch.

This is a problem for inerrantists. 1 Enoch is no longer considered canonical, apparently because of its descriptions of the lewd acts of the angels who came down from Heaven and mated with human women (even though this is alluded to in Genesis 6:4, and God himself supposedly did something rather similar with Mary). But more problematic is the astronomical section (1 Enoch 71-87). The Hebrews believed the Earth was flat, and covered by a solid dome, the Firmament. While modern inerrantists would prefer to believe that references to this are "metaphorical", it is difficult to make this argument in the case of 1 Enoch, which goes into great detail about how the celestial bodies move in and out of gates in the Firmament dome throughout the Hebrew year. Here is a sample:

1 Enoch 71:2 This is the first law of the luminaries. The sun and the light arrive at the gates of heaven, which are on the east, and on the west of it at the western gates of heaven.

3 I beheld the gates whence the sun goes forth; and the gates where the sun sets;

4 In which gates also the moon rises and sets; and I beheld the conductors of the stars, among those who precede them; six gates were at the rising, and six at the setting of the sun.

5 All these respectively, one after another, are on a level; and numerous windows are on the right and on the left sides of those gates.

6 First proceeds forth that great luminary, which is called the sun; the orb of which is as the orb of heaven, the whole of it being replete with splendid and flaming fire.

7 Its chariot, where it ascends, the wind blows.

8 The sun sets in heaven, and, returning by the north, to proceed towards the east, is conducted so as to enter by that gate, and illuminate the face of heaven.

9 In the same manner it goes forth in the first month by the great gate.

10 It goes forth through the fourth of those six gates, which are at the rising of the sun.

11 And in the fourth gate, through which the sun with the moon proceeds, in the first part of it, there are twelve open windows; from which issues out a flame, when they are opened in their proper periods.

12 When the sun rises in heaven, it goes forth through this fourth gate thirty days, and by the fourth gate in the west of heaven on a level with it descends.

13 During that period the day is lengthened from the day, and the night curtailed from the night for thirty days. And then the day is longer by two parts than the night.

14 The day is precisely ten parts, and the night is eight.

15 The sun goes forth through this fourth gate, and sets in it, and turns to the fifth gate during thirty days; after which it proceeds from, and sets in, the fifth gate.

16 Then the day becomes lengthened by a second portion, so that it is eleven parts: while the night becomes shortened, and is only seven parts.

17 The sun now returns to the east, entering into the sixth gate, and rising and setting in the sixth gate thirty-one days, on account of its signs.

18 At that period the day is longer than the night, being twice as long as the night; and become twelve parts;

...and so on (and on, and on...).

Biblical references to this cosmology (specifically, the notion of a solid Firmament with Heaven above it) include the creation of the Firmament in Genesis 1:6; God opening windows in the Firmament in Genesis 7:11 to let water rain down, and closing them again in Genesis 8:2; the construction of a tall tower to reach Heaven in Genesis 11:4; celestial warehouses for snow and hail in Job 38:22, the sky as a strong crystalline material in Job 37:18 and Ezekiel 1:22; the sky as a tent in Isaiah 40:22; stars as small objects attached to the Firmament (which can fall off) in Daniel 8:10, Matthew 24:29, Mark 13:25, Revelation 6:13, Revelation 8:10, Revelation 9:1 and Revelation 12:4 (apologists sometimes claim that these "falling stars" are meteors, but the swipe of a dragon's tail dislodges one-third of all the stars in the sky in Revelation 12:4).

The heavens are "rolled back like a scroll" in Revelation 6:14: however, as stars are apparently still being knocked off the Firmament in subsequent verses, it's unclear which layer is being removed at this point. --Robert Stevens 11:57, 9 Nov 2005 (CST)


That Jude endorses (and quotes from) the Book of Enoch is speculation. We night also speculate that Jude and the author of the Book of Enoch quote from a common source not identified. However, even if the speculation is true that Jude quotes an account not inspired by God, that account may include bits of truth and Jude may extract such truth without endorsing the whole thus giving credence to that which he quotes but leaving the rest to be discarded.

The book of Enoch is an apocryphal work. This characterization identifies a book for which the origin/author was hidden or unknown and whose contents are veiled in the language of allegory, symbolism, or other figurative speech. The author of Enoch writes in the first person how Enoch was taken on a tour of the earth and heaven by an angel(s). As the book is thought to have been written by more than one author over many years, it is likely that each sought to convey information obtained through historical documents or perhaps tradition. The exact source is unknown.

There is a series of chapters describing the “luminaries" or the sun, moon and stars. Chapters 72-82, are titled, The book of the courses of the luminaries, is an account of the course and movements of the sun, moon, and stars, respecting which the angel Uriel, instructed Enoch. Chapter 79 begins, “And now, my son Methuselah, I have showed you all things, and the whole law of the stars is completed. And he showed me all their laws for every day and for every time and for every government and for every year, and her departure, according to her order in each month and in every week.” From this, we may understand that the purpose of these chapters is not to give a physical description of a “firmament” or of the sun, moon, and stars, but of certain physical laws that the sun, moon, and stars follow. The language speaks figuratively of portals and windows to denote the position of the sun (equinoxes, solstices, aphelion, and perihelion) or phases of the moon. Taking the figurative language as evidence that the Jews believed that the firmament was a dome covering the earth is an extreme extrapolation from the Book of Enoch.

The Book of Enoch - Translated from the Ethiopic 1882 edition by George H. Schodde may be downloaded in pdf format here.



Edit this section to note miscellaneous facts.

Enoch isn't a complete book done by one author, you can't say which version of it Jude was reading from

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