And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. (ASV)
The "Firmament" mentioned here is a solid dome covering the flat Earth, with the "waters of Heaven" above (which cause rain when released). There's more on the Firmament in the Jude 1:14 article. --Robert Stevens 12:05, 9 Nov 2005 (CST)
PRO speculates that a solid dome covering a flat earth is implied but there is nothing here to support that contention.
We read that, "God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” (Genesis 1:6)
Later, we read, "God said, 'Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth'; and it was so." (Genesis 1:14-15) The firmament is that into which God places the sun, moon, and stars.
We also read, "God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." (Genesis 1:7) Then, "God said, 'Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear'; and it was so.' (Genesis 1:9) Here, the waters below comprise the earth which are then divided into dry land and oceans. The firmament extends from the surface of the earth to space which contain the stars. We then understand that there are waters forming the outer boundary of the space in which the stars are placed.
The firmament may be likened to a dome and it would be a dome of water that surrounds the universe and it might be considered to be solid because of the water. There may be a dome implied in the atmosphere that covers the earth, but the Scriptures do not require it to be a solid dome, and it is not.
Edit this section to note miscellaneous facts.